Italy velvet flourished most during the Ming and Qing d […]
Italy velvet flourished most during the Ming and Qing dynasties. There are two kinds of flower velvet and plain velvet.Flower velvet refers to cutting part of the pile loops into piles according to the pattern, so that it is combined with the unbroken loops to form a pattern; while the surface of plain velvet is all pile loops. Generally, velvet uses silk as raw material or warp, cotton yarn as weft, and mulberry silk or rayon as a loop. When weaving, a pile rodie thin iron wire is woven into every four wool yarns, and when weaving to a certain length, it is cut along the iron wire with a cutter on the machine to form wool. How the plush is made depends on the pattern. The patterns that make up the fabric have two forms: one is velvet satin, or Zhang satin; the other is velvet satin, or velvet. Its characteristic is that there is little texture, single, double color, or embedded gold and silver thread.For velvet, mulberry silk can be used as the raw material, or mulberry silk can be used as warp, and cotton yarn can be used as weft interlaced ground structure, and mulberry silk or rayon can be used to raise loops.
When weaving, after weaving four piles, weave a pile rod thin iron wire. When weaving to a certain length about 20 cm, cut along the iron wire with a cutter on the machine, and the iron wire is separated from the fabric to become wool velvet. According to the design of the pattern, this plush can make the pattern clearly displayed on the satin surface and be shiny. There are two forms of patterns that make up the fabric, one is velvet satin, which is Zhang satin; the other is velvet satin, which is velvet. There are single-color and two-color, rich and luxurious, can be used as autumn and winter clothing or high-end sofa covers, curtains, etc. The origin of velvet can be traced back to the mirror clothes of the Western Han Dynasty. It was developed on the basis of the famous "silk wool" shearing in the Yuan Dynasty.It was mass-produced in the Ming Dynasty and sold to Japan, Portugal, the Netherlands, Singapore and other places, especially popular with Japanese. Velvet gradually developed from "textile" to "flowering" and "cutting flowers". And gradually become perfect. According to the steamed by the mechanism, utterly overwhelming". The warp and weft of the velvet fabric in the Ming Dynasty were all silk. After Zhang Rong was passed to Nanjing Jiangning Weaving House in the Ming Dynasty, it was processed and innovated and developed into Nanjing's unique carved velvet.
It was very popular among literati and doctors. For a time, "Jinling Rong is expensive". Noble officials and nobles are all comparable, wearing carved velvet. Velvet is proud. The two important velvet objects in the Ming Dynasty are the velvet crown unearthed from the tomb of Wang Xijue in Suzhou, the double-sided velvet tetrahedron ruyi-embroidered women's dress and the blue single-sided velvet women's dress unearthed in the Ming Dingling Tomb in Beijing. In the early Qing dynasty, velvet weavers were distributed in the area outside the east gate of Zhangzhou, and there were merchants who set up shops exclusively for swimming. In the middle of the Qing dynasty, velvet was used by emperors and scholar-officials and local gentry and tribute. Products include dragon robe, palace clothing, mandarin jacket, lintel, table towel, etc. At that time, Zeng Da was a good knitting hand. The handed down cultural relics include the gilt velvet crown of the Jingling Mausoleum of the Qing Dynasty, the blue zhangrong tuan eight-treasure mantle in the late Qing Dynasty, the purple zhangrong blessing three-dimensional vest of the Qing Guangxu, the Zhangrong landscape drawing axis, the Zhangrong Chenquan drawing peacock drawing axis, and the five bat holdings Shou carved zhang velvet.In the Taiping Rebellion, famous velvet teachers and craftsmen avoided chaos in Jiangsu and Zhejiang.At the end of the Qing Dynasty, the government was corrupt. The mulberry forests in Zhangzhou were cut down to open up wasteland. Silk materials became increasingly scarce, old artists died one after another, and velvet gradually declined.
Only Yu Laizai and Zenghe are two velvet weaving artists. Nanjing, Hangzhou and other places have developed due to the arrival of velvet artists.In the 18th year of the Republic of China, Zhangzhou established a work-study school in order to resume velvet production and hired a famous artist Wang Ming to teach weaving technology. However, his ambition failed and Wang Ming died. At the beginning of the Anti-Japanese War, Gao Kaikou, Wang Xiwen, Wang Yucheng and others organized 10 people to pass on the art after Zhangzhou Garden in order to restore production. However, the quality and style are worse than in the past, and the sales and cost are affected by products from Hangzhou, Nanjing and other places. Production was suspended in only 3 months.According to a survey in 1952, there were no more than 10 velvet artists including Longxi Buwei, Liushi and other townships). All of them have changed their jobs, and they are all over 60 years old, and their tools have been lost, making it difficult to resume production. Later, the relevant departments sent two cadres from Zhangzhou Silk Mills to visit the counties in Longxi Prefecture and learned that there are still people in Nanjing who can weave velvet. In 1958, Zhangzhou Silk Mill sent people to Nanjing, Hangzhou, and Suzhou to study and conduct professional training. Nanjing sent machines to Zhangzhou. So Zhangzhou's "velvet" came back to life. In March 1961, the silk mill used velvet "flowering" craftsmanship to commemorate the Southern Fujian Revolution with Dong Biwu's inscription "The gentleman's footsteps-Comrade Mao Zedong's path is to guide the victory of the Chinese revolution." The weaving length is 170 cm and the width is 70 cm. Centimeters, light yellow-brown background, black suede characters, is unprecedented since there was velvet.